Recent developments in biomechanics and technology have improved our understanding of the shoulder joints. While the shoulder joint is the one of the most mobile joints in the human body, its stability mostly relies on soft tissue structures such as the glenoid labrum and capsular ligament. Traumatic anterior instability is the most common instability related to sports injury. Younger individuals have a higher rate of recurrence after nonoperative treatment after the first-time episode of anterior instability. Arthroscopic repair of the Bankart lesion provides reliable outcomes in most of the anterior instability, while selected patients with significant bone loss may require bony augmentation procedures. Posterior instability has been underestimated. Sports injury is commonly associated with symptomatic posterior instability, and posterior labral lesions are commonly found. Arthroscopic reconstruction of the posteroinferior height and ligament balance is required. Superior labral lesions are a commonly diagnosed disease in the shoulder. Care must be taken to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures especially in nonathletic populations without significant traumatic episodes. Partial articular surface tears are common among sports related rotator cuff injuries. Symptomatic articular surface tears require arthroscopic treatment such as debridement or trans-tendon repair.