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J Korean Med Assoc. 2011 Jan;54(1):61-69. Korean. Original Article.
Bang S , Yang E .
Department of Plastic Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was one of the first methods of breast reconstruction described. However, a standard latissimus dorsi flap alone often does not provide sufficient volume for breast reconstruction and has been performed with an implant to achieve adequate breast volume. The design of an extended latissimus dorsi flap has evolved to include the parascapular and scapular fat-fascia extension in addition to lumbar fat for additional volume. The main advantage of the extended latissimus dorsi flap is that it can provide autologous tissue to the reconstructed breast without an implant and with an acceptable donor site contour and scar. The extended latissimus dorsi flap elevation is of dissection in plane just beneath the fascia superficialis, leaving the deep fat attached to the surface of the muscle. The fat left attached to the surface of the muscle is well vascularized by the perforators coming from the muscle itself. Division of the humeral attachment of the muscle is performed for an adequate excursion of the flap. Denervation of the thoracodorsal nerve is recommended for preventing postoperative involuntary muscle contraction. Patients should be warned of the potential donor site seroma. The extended latissimus dorsi flap proved to be a reliable option for totally autologous breast reconstruction in selected patients. The flap is reliable, and the procedure is technically straightforward and consistent.

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