Cancer is the most common cause of disease-related mortality in Korea and is the key target for the solution to promote the national health and stabilize the health insurance. Without the development of a definitive prevention or treatment method, the proportion of cancer-related mortality will further increase with the advent of aging society and transition of life pattern. Nationally-based cancer screening program has been expanded to cover a larger target population in Korea since 1999. Despite the existence of some flaw in the present cancer screening program between the participants and medical institutions, the number of people taking part in the cancer screening program has been increasing. With the reinforcement of the quality control and supervision, medical institutions participating in national cancer screening program can be expected to become well acquainted with related regulations and procedures. It is necessary for all parties involved to exercise a substantial effort to achieve health examiner's best satisfaction and the quality of the cancer screening program.