It has been over 10 years since the health promotion policy is carried out by government and the level of health of Korean people has been dramatically improved. However, persistent increase in chronic diseases and the rapid aging require comprehensive health promotion policies for the establishment of cost effective health care system. Furthermore, the current global economic difficulties necessitate the implementation of appropriate health care system for underprivileged groups of people. In 2009, in an effort to effectively remedy these situations, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Family Affairs implemented a new health promotion policy with focus on five strategic areas; reinforcement of health care support for the underprivileged groups; strengthening health promotion management including smoking and obesity prevention; preparation for the next generation's health by supporting pregnancy and childbirth; establishing the preventive system for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and asthma; governmental support for suicide and alcohol abuse prevention and improvement of mental health care service. From the socioeconomic perspective, the current health promotion policy in Korea contributes to raising national income level by producing job opportunities, through the revitalization of new service sector. It is expected that the introduction of Health Care Service will contribute more to this trend.