Uncontrolled or inadequately controlled postoperative pain may lead to delayed recovery from surgery, pulmonary complications, and restriction of mobility leading to increased risk of thromboembolism. Standardized regimens for pain management can lead to safer and better pain control. Of these regimens, patient-controlled analgesia, a delivery system with which patients self-administer small, predetermined analgesic doses, produced improved pain relief, greater patient satisfaction, less sedation, and fewer postoperative complications. Anesthesiologists have played an important role to make this pain management feasible. The introduction of acute pain services at hospitals prompted improvements in postoperative pain management in addition to the minimization of related complications.