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J Korean Med Assoc. 2005 Jul;48(7):601-608. Korean. Original Article.
Jung ES .
Department of Ophthalomology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Korea.

Surgical modalities to correct hyperopia include photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), Ho:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK), conductive keratoplasty (CK), phakic IOL, and refractive lens exchange. Excimer laser-based techniques, which include LASIK, LASEK, and PRK, are currently the most popular forms of surgery to correct not only myopia and astigmatism but also hyperopia. These techniques have been reported to be safe and effective for both primary surgeries and enhancements. However, various complications related to the flap and loss of best corrected visual acuity associated with a smaller optic zone, decentration, and irregular ablation caused by longer treatment time in high hyperopia over +5 diopter can have adverse effects on visual outcomes. The development of non-excimer laser-based techniques offers viable alternatives for laser vision correction techniques. More recent non-excimer-based thermal refractive techniques include LTK and CK. Earlier forms of thermal techniques showed a lack of predictability and stability, resulting in no further development of them. Recently, CK, a laserless, radiofrequency-based technique, has been approved by the FDA for the correction of low to moderate hyperopia even though the refractive instability has not been solved yet. In high hyperopia, lens approach like phakic IOL or refractive lens exchange instead of corneal surgery is preferred. ICL (Implantable contact lens) and Artisan is the most popular lens model that has well proven clinical results concerning its safety and effectiveness. Accommodative IOL or multifocal IOL could be the solution for pseudophakic presbyopia in refractive lens exchange in the future.

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