The advancements in optics, video technologies and endoscopic instrumentations have led to the expansion of endoscopy into the current therapeutic surgical practice of benign and malignant gynecologic conditions. So, minimally invasive and organ-preserving surgery can be performed in terms of organ-specific difficulties in the field of gynecology instead of conventional surgical techniques that require laparotomy and uterotomy. Also, the recent introduction of computer-aided instruments seems to have the potential to revolutionize endoscopic surgery. Major advantages of an endoscopic surgery include minimization of patient discomfort and analgesics requirements, a short period of hospitalization, rapid recuperation, superior cosmetics, easier intra-operative access to the pelvic floor, cul-de sac and intrauterine cavity, less blood loss and less postoperative adhesion. Today every gynecologists should have the knowledge and skill of the endoscopic surgery in order to gain great benefits from endoscopic surgery. In this article, recent advancements in the endoscopic surgery of gynecological conditions are reviewed.