OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether adjuvant simple hysterectomy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) improves progression-free survival (PFS) compared with current standard care in locally advanced cervical adenocarcinoma (LACAC). METHODS: We reviewed a cohort of 55 patients with LACAC (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stage IB2, IIA2, IIB, III without distant metastasis) diagnosed and treated with radical CCRT at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2004 and October 2014. We compared 34 patients who underwent adjuvant extrafascial hysterectomy with 21 patients with standard care after CCRT. The primary outcome was PFS. Overall survivals (OS) between the two groups were also compared. Surgery feasibility, operative complications, and pathologic features after radiation therapy were also analyzed. RESULTS: PFS was significantly improved in surgery group (log-rank p=0.0097; hazard ratio [HR], 0.3431; 95% CI, 0.152 to 0.772), as were OS (log-rank p=0.0419; HR, 0.3667; 95% CI, 0.139 to 0.964). Analysis of stage IIB demonstrates a similar result. There were no severe complications related to postradiation surgery in this series. The mean blood loss was less in laparoscopic group than those in the open group (87 mL vs. 208 mL, p=0.036, Mann-Whitney U-test). Approximately 47% patients (16/34) had pathologic residue tumor on hysterectomy specimens. About 94% patients (32/34) got complete remission after adjuvant surgery. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant hysterectomy after CCRT improves survival outcome for patients with LACAC compared with current standard care. Extrafascial hysterectomy is sufficient in tumor reduction and laparoscopic procedure may be more promising with lower blood loss and expedite recovery.