OBJECTIVE: To explore appropriate treatment modality of microinvasive cervical cancer (MIC) and to analyze prognosis and risk factors of recurrence. METHODS: A cohort of 324 Chinese patients with MIC diagnosed and treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital was retrospectively reviewed. Demographic features, treatment modalities, pathologic parameters, risk factors of residual disease, survival and risk factors of recurrence were analyzed. RESULTS: Of all patients, 280 cases were staged IA1 and 44 cases staged IA2 MIC. Twenty-five cases (7.7%) were found to have lympho-vascular space involvement (LVSI), but no parametrial involvement or ovarian metastasis was detected. Only one staged IA2 patient with LVSI was found to have lymph node metastasis. 32.4% patients (82/253) had residual diseases after conization. No significant difference of LVSI, lymph node metastasis and residual disease after coniztion was found between stage IA1 and IA2 MIC patients. Multivariate logistic analysis showed positive margin was the only independent risk factor of residual disease after conization (odds ratio [OR], 4.18; p<0.001). Recurrence occurred in five cases, but no mortality was found. Progression-free survival for stage IA1 patients treated by conization or hysterectomy was similar (92.3% and 98.8%, p=0.07). Cox regression analysis revealed LVSI as an independent risk factor for recurrence in stage IA1 patients (OR, 12.14; p=0.01). CONCLUSION: For stage IA1 patients with negative resection margin and no LVSI, conization can be an ideal treatment modality. For stage IA2 patients, more conservative surgery such as simple hysterectomy may be considered. LVSI is an independent risk factor for recurrence in patients with stage IA1 cervical cancer.