OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the survival benefit of laparoscopic surgical staging (LSS)-guided tailored radiation therapy (RT) in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 89 LACC patients' medical records who primarily received non-surgical treatment, of which pretreatment LSS was performed in 20 (LSS group) and primary chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) without LSS (CCRT group) was carried out in 69 from January 2000 to January 2006. We analyzed clinical characteristics, pretreatment imaging study results and survival outcomes including disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) to compare them between the two groups. RESULTS: There were as many as eight cases (40%) of LSS related complications. The mean time interval between LSS and RT or CCRT was 26.6 days (+/-18.8 days). Six out of twenty (30%) in LSS group and 10 out of 69 (14.5%) in CCRT group received extended field RT when paraaortic lymph nodes (LNs) were positive based on the pathologic findings after LSS and the results of imaging studies, respectively. Three-year DFS and OS were both better in 33 imaging-negative CCRT group patients than those in 4 imaging-negative/pathology-positive (false negative) patients after LSS (3-year DFS, 50% vs. 87%, p=0.022; 3-year OS, 50% vs. 84%, p=0.033). The 5-year DFS rates were 52% and 55% in LSS group and in CCRT group, respectively (p=0.28). The 5-year OS rates were 68% in LSS group and 62% in CCRT group without significant difference between the two groups (p=0.79). CONCLUSION: We found that LSS-based RT tailoring did not show survival benefit in LACC despite inaccuracy of imaging-based RT tailoring. Further studies are required to find new method to overcome this inaccuracy and improve survival outcomes.