Gynecologic malignancies may have similar histological characteristics. This may lead to difficulties in determining the origin of the cancer and to distinguish a synchronous neoplasm from a metastatic cancer in advanced cases. Recently, we treated a 59-year-old patient with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It was difficult to determine whether the cancer was a single origin metastatic cancer or a synchronous neoplasm. The patient was finally diagnosed with metastatic cancer that originated from the uterine cervix by human papillomavirus (HPV) test. Here we report the case and briefly review of the medical literature.