We are report on three cases of typical clinical characterstics and treatment response in neuroleptic maligant syndrome(NMS), and reviewed the literatures of NMS. NMS was first recognized as a life-threatening complication of dopamine receptor antagonists, and defined as a catatonic-like states associated with fever, obtundation, muscle rigidity, and unstable vital sign in patients taking neuroleptic agents. Concepts of NMS have changed because medications other than classic neuroleptic drugs have been implicated as triggering agents and syndromes identical to NMS have been observed in other conditions. The important neurochemical features are probably functional dopamine deficiency and ensuing hyperactivity of excitatory amino and neurotransmission in the basal ganglia and hypothalamus. Recognition of NMS and early discontinuation of neuroleptics are the most important step in its management. Supportive care includes management of hyperthermia and fluid replacement. Contraversial therapeutic measures include the application of dopamine receptor agonists, excitatory amino acid antagosists, or dantrolene. Psychiatric patients with a history on NMS and psychotic relapse necessitating antipsycotics do not commonly redevelop NMS.