BACKGROUND: The Anyplex plus MTB/NTM and MDR-TB Detection kits (Seegene, Korea) a real-time PCR assays for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and for identification of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance of MTB in various specimens. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Anyplex plus MTB/NTM and MDR-TB Detection kit. METHODS: To determine the ability of the kit to detect MTB and NTM, 557 samples were tested. The diagnostic performance of the Anyplex plus MTB/NTM Detection kit was determined based on the results of culture, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), radiologic analysis, and clinical features suggestive of mycobacterial infection. The performance of the kit was compared with those of other real-time PCR kits. For the drug susceptibility test (DST), 51 MTB isolates were tested. The diagnostic performance of the Anyplex plus MDR-TB Detection kit was determined based on the conventional DST and compared with other molecular DST kits. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity for MTB detection of the Anyplex plus MTB/NTM Detection kit were 82.9% (63/76) and 99.4% (478/481), respectively, while those for NTM detection were 76.5% (13/17) and 89.6% (484/540). Sensitivity and specificity for RIF resistance detection of the Anyplex plus MDR-TB Detection kit were 100% (3/3) and 97.9% (47/48), respectively, while those for INH resistance detection were 83.3% (5/6) and 100% (45/45). CONCLUSION: The Anyplex plus MTB/NTM Detection kit showed good diagnostic performance for detection of MTB and NTM. Especially in MTB-positive cases, the Anyplex plus MDR-TB Detection kit provided rapid and reliable results of drug resistance to RIF and INH.