PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical results and complications of internal transport by Ilizarov for defect nonunion of tibia MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 24 patients undertaken internal transport by Ilizarov for defect nonunion of tibia from January 1991 to December 1997. There were 21 males and 3 females with a mean age of 33.4 years(range, 17-64 years). On average, the size of bone defect measured 7.9 cm(range, 2-17 cm). Bone defects were gradually closed by progressive internal transport. After internal transport, bone grafts on 14 docking sites were performed because of delayed union. Soft tissue defects were treated with secondary closures(6 cases), skin grafts(4 cases), and flaps(4 cases). RESULTS: According to Paley and Catagni's classification, bone results were excellent in 19 cases, good in 4 cases, and poor in 1 case. Functional results were excellent in 2 cases, good in 21 cases, and poor in 1 case. According to Paley's classification, the complications were developed as follows; Problems were pin site infections(12 cases), joint contractures(9 cases), and distraction gap delayed consolidations(3 cases). Obstacle was absent. Complication was refracture(1 case). The average distraction consolidation index was 39.4 days/cm. The average percentage transport was 139.7 %. CONCLUSION: The application of Ilizarov to defect nonunion of the tibia is effective, but correct technique and careful follow-up is required.