Gastric cancer is the most common malignancy and the incidence is steadily increasing in Korea. The principal treatment modality for gastric cancer is surgical extirpation of tumor along with draining lymph nodes. Gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection has been well established as a standard of surgery and improved the survival of gastric cancer patients. Recently, technological advances are drastically reshaping the landscape of surgical treatment of gastric cancer. One of the most notable trends is that minimal access surgery becomes dominating the treatment of early stage diseases. For advanced diseases, the standard access surgery is considered a reference treatment. Although there is a pilot study underway to evaluate the feasibility of the application of minimal access surgery to advanced gastric cancer (AGC), the evidence for oncological safety is not yet provided sufficiently. Based on the recent randomized controlled trials, the extent of surgery for AGC has re-defined as para-aortic lymph node dissection dose not add any survival benefit while increasing surgery-related morbidities. In addition, it is now accepted as a standard operation omitting unnecessary procedures such as splenectomy and/or distal pancreatectomy for prophylactic lymph node dissection. Conceptual and technical innovation has contributed to decreasing morbidity and mortality without impairing oncological safety. All these recent advances in the field of gastric cancer surgery would be concluded in maximizing therapeutic index for gastric cancer while improving quality of life.