PURPOSE: Locoregional recurrence of breast cancer after surgery has been regarded as a harbinger of distant metastases. The present study was undertaken to determine survival following surgical excision of isolated locoregional recurrence and to analyze prognostic factors for impact on survival after locoregional recurrence. Also, this study may provide information on the benefit group from surgical management. METHODS: From March 1993 to December 1998, of 43 patients with isolated locoregional recurrence after breast cancer surgery, 26 patients were treated with surgical excision with or without irradiation. Survival was analyzed according to prognostic factors retrospectively. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 15 months. the 3-year disease-free and overall survival was 50% and 63% for locoregional recurrences treated with surgical resection, and 6% and 14% for patients without surgery, respectively(p=0.04, p=0.07). Univariative analysis demonstrated that the initial axillary node status and the disease-free interval were found to be significant prognostic factors for overall survival(p=0.04, p=0.06). The disease-free interval from surgery to recurrence was also a significant prognostic factor for disease-free survival(p=0.03). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that isolated locoregional recurrence of breast cancer with a long disease-free interval and an initial node negative status may survived for long periods of time with aggressive surgical treatment.