PURPOSE: Purpose of this study was to identify the effects on maternal role strain, maternal role confidence and maternal identity of a maternal role promotion program for mothers of premature infants. METHOD: A quasi-experimental non-equivalent pre-and-post test was used to compare the two groups. The data were collected from 62 mothers from September 10. 2003 to August 30, 2004 at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit(NICU) located in S. city and K. city. The maternal role promotion program was provided three times during the period from two-three days after the baby's admission to 1 month after the baby's discharge. The instruments for measurement were the Perceived Role Difficulty & Steffensmeier Scale, Self Confidence Scale and Semantic Differential Scale. Data were analyzed by means of frequency, mean and SD, x2-test and t-test. RESULTS: There were significant differences in maternal role strain level between the experimental and control group (t=2.163, p=.035), in the maternal role confidence between the two groups(t=-5.645, p=.000) and in maternal identity between the two groups(t=-4.923, p=.000). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the maternal role promotion program had positive effects in decreasing maternal role strain levels and increasing maternal role confidence and maternal identity.