PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify resiliency factor, to test causal relationship and effect of resiliency factors on adaptation in families of children with cancer. A conceptual framework was constructed based on McCubbin's resiliency model. Hypotheses were tested with empirical data. METHOD: Data were collected using self-report questionnaire from 232 families of children with cancer. The collected data were analyzed using the SAS program and LISREL program for covariance structural analysis. RESULT: Family hardiness and problem-solving coping had significant direct effects on adaptation in families of children with cancer. Social support had significant indirect and total effect on adaptation. Family Schema had significant direct effect on family hardiness and problem-solving coping. Problem-solving communication had a significant direct effect on family hardiness and an indirect effect on family functioning and problem-solving coping. Among the resiliency factors, family hardiness had the greatest effect on adaptation in family of children with cancer. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that nursing interventions to enhance family hardiness, problem-solving coping and social support would result in an increase in adaptation in families of children with cancer. An integrated intervention that emphasizes and promotes resiliency factors should be developed and established for families of children with cancer.