PURPOSE: this study was intended to search the relationship between perception of the infant temperament in mother of infant at the age of 1~12 months and maternal confidence and satisfaction in performing maternal role, and to submit a basic data to establish a nursing intervention program which is helpful for determination of infant development and performing maternal role promotion by identify variables associated with infant temperament. METHOD: The subjects of this study were 300 mothers of infant at the age of 1~12 months who visited well baby clinic in 4 hospitals in Busan city and Kyoung-Nam province. Final analysis was performed in 293 cases. Seven cases was excluded in this study because of its inappropriate data collection. The data was collected from 1st July to 15th August 2002. The questionaries which were fill-up by mother were collected. Infant temperament was measured by using the tool of "what my baby is like"(WBL) which was developed by Priham et. al.(1994) and translated by Bang(1999). The scale of postpartum self evaluation which was developed by Lederman et al(1981) and translated by Lee(1992) was used for the confidence and satisfaction of maternal role. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS-PC for window, version 10.0: frequency, percentage, minimum, maximum, mean, SD, t-test, ANOVA, Post-hoc test(Scheffe's test), Pearson Correlation Coefficients. RESULT: The mean score of maternal perception of the infant temperament was 6.17 +/-1.04, and mother recognized her infant as positive. The mean score of confidence of maternal role was 2.89+/-.41 and this revealed in an average level. The mean score of satisfaction of maternal role was 3.29+/-.51 and this revealed in a higher level. There was a weak significant positive correlation between the score of maternal perception of infant temperament and confidence of maternal role(r=0.176, P= .003), but there was no significant correlation between satisfaction of maternal role(P > .05). It revealed the more maternal perception of the infant temperament as positive, the higher confidence of maternal role. There was a moderate significant positive correlation between confidence of maternal role and satisfaction of maternal role(r=0.410, P= .000). It revealed the more confidence of maternal role, the higher satisfaction of maternal role. The variables related with the score of maternal perception of infant temperament were the type of delivery (t=-2.600, P= .010), experience of learning baby care(t=2.382, P= .018), maternal perception on baby's health status(F=3.467, P= .033), maternal perception on her health status(F=3.467, P= .027), baby's age(F=3.080, P= .028). CONCLUSION: Our result showed the confidence of maternal role was increased as the maternal perception of infant temperament was positive, and conformed that the confidence of maternal role was also related with satisfaction of maternal role. Prenatal education, type of delivery, baby's age were also related with the maternal perception of infant temperament. So, nursing intervention program of developmental stage maybe necessary in order to help maternal perception of infant temperament as positive, and it will be increased the confidence of maternal role and satisfaction of performing maternal role which was considered as real indicate of achievement of maternal role.