OBJECT: Pre-ALL is a very rare preteukemic state, which percedes acute lymphocytic leukemia, while MDS(pre-ANLL), usually the well-known type of preleukemic state, precedes acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. Initially it shows transient pancytopenia without any evidence of leukemia in bone marrow findings, followed by acute lymphocytic leukemia after recovery from pancytopenia of a short period within weeks or months. We report a case with pre-ALL in childhood. CASE: A 15-month-old male baby was admitted with the complaints of fever and cough for 5 days and pallor for 2 weeks prior to admission. On admission, CBC showed pancytopenia without any evidence of leukemia, which was recovered spontaneously in a short period, and then was followed by acute lymphocytic leukemia of CALLA negative, early pre-B cell type. During antileukemic chemotherapy, he had suffered from severe bacterial infections and was finally died of sepsis 8 months after first admission. CONCLUSION: We report a case of pre-ALL in childhood, which was preceded by CALLA negative, early pre-B cell ALL, with a review of the literatures, briefly.