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Int Neurourol J. 2011 Sep;15(3):109-119. English. Review.
Yoo JJ , Olson J , Atala A , Kim B .
Wake Forest Institute For Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
Joint Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
Department of Urology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Neurogenic bladder is a general term encompassing various neurologic dysfunctions of the bladder and the external urethral sphincter. These can be caused by damage or disease. Therapeutic management options can be conservative, minimally invasive, or surgical. The current standard for surgical management is bladder augmentation using intestinal segments. However, because intestinal tissue possesses different functional characteristics than bladder tissue, numerous complications can ensue, including excess mucus production, urinary stone formation, and malignancy. As a result, investigators have sought after alternative solutions. Tissue engineering is a scientific field that uses combinations of cells and biomaterials to encourage regeneration of new, healthy tissue and offers an alternative approach for the replacement of lost or deficient organs, including the bladder. Promising results using tissue-engineered bladder have already been obtained in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele. Human clinical trials, governed by the Food and Drug Administration, are ongoing in the United States in both children and adults to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of this technology. This review will introduce the principles of tissue engineering and discuss how it can be used to treat refractory cases of neurogenic bladder.

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