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Healthc Inform Res. 2017 Oct;23(4):271-276. English. Original Article.
Singh Y .
Department of Telehealth, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.


Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the major burdens of disease in developing countries, and the standard-of-care treatment includes prescribing antiretroviral drugs. However, antiretroviral drug resistance is inevitable due to selective pressure associated with the high mutation rate of HIV. Determining antiretroviral resistance can be done by phenotypic laboratory tests or by computer-based interpretation algorithms. Computer-based algorithms have been shown to have many advantages over laboratory tests. The ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA) is regarded as a gold standard in interpreting HIV drug resistance using mutations in genomes. The aim of this study was to improve the prediction of the ANRS gold standard in predicting HIV drug resistance.


A genome sequence and HIV drug resistance measures were obtained from the Stanford HIV database ( Feature selection was used to determine the most important mutations associated with resistance prediction. These mutations were added to the ANRS rules, and the difference in the prediction ability was measured.


This study uncovered important mutations that were not associated with the original ANRS rules. On average, the ANRS algorithm was improved by 79% ± 6.6%. The positive predictive value improved by 28%, and the negative predicative value improved by 10%.


The study shows that there is a significant improvement in the prediction ability of ANRS gold standard.

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