OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of frozen-thawed ET in poor prognosis patients such as the old age (38~44 years; OA group) and the patients who did not achieve clinical pregnancy with the first fresh ET cycle (non-pregnant patients; NP group). METHODS: Laboratory and clinical data were collected from fresh and frozen-thawed ET cycles of OA and NP group. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and conventional insemination or ICSI, in vitro culture and ET were performed by routine procedures. Supernumerary embryos were frozen by the slow freezing method, and frozen embryos were thawed by the rapid thawing method. Embryo development, pregnancy and implantation rates were statistically analyzed by Student t-test and chi square test. RESULTS: Mean ages were similar between fresh ET (40.0+/-1.8 years, n=206) and frozen-thawed ET (39.9+/-1.9 years, n=69) cycles in OA group. However, the clinical pregnancy and implantation rate of subsequent frozen-thawed ET significantly higher than those of fresh ET cycles (29.0% and 11.2% vs. 16.5% and 7.0%, p<0.05). In NP group, there was no difference in the mean age between fresh ET (31.2+/-2.3 years, n=40) and frozen-thawed ET (31.9+/-3.1 years, n=119) in subsequent cycles. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were similar between the subsequent fresh ET (42.5% and 22.6%) and the frozen-thawed ET (40.3% and 18.8%). CONCLUSION: In old age patients, higher pregnancy rate of frozen-thawed ET compared to fresh ET cycles in this study. It may be related that better uterine environments for implantation in frozen-thawed ET cycles than that of non-physiological hormonal condition in uterus of fresh COH cycles.