OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to investigate the types and the incidences of chromosomal abnormalities, and to provide an explanation for the genetic causations of recurrent spontaneous abortions in Korean population. METHODS: Cytogenetic studies were carried out in 535 couples with at least two spontaneous first trimester abortions from January 1981 to December 2003. For karyotype analysis, we used modified Moorhead method by Giemsa staining and Giemsa-Trypsin-Giemsa banding RESULTS: The overall incidence of chromosome abnormality was 32 out of 535 cases (5.98%). There were 25 cases (4.67%) of translocation and 7 cases (1.31%) of inversion. In translocation, 5 cases (0.93%) of Robertsonian translocation and 20 cases (3.74%) of reciprocal translocation were observed. In inversion, 6 cases (1.12%) of inversion of chromosome 9 and one case (0.19%) of inversion of chromosome 18 were found. CONCLUSION: In this study, overall chromosomal abnormality rate in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions is much higher than that in the general population. So, chromosomal analysis should be offered for the prognostic information in genetic counseling such as prenatal diagnosis in couples with repetitive reproductive failure.