OBJECTIVE: Heat shock protein family is related to protective mechanism of cells by environmental changes. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of cryopreservation on the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) expression in mouse ovarian tissue. METHODS: Cryopreservation of mouse ovarian tissue was carried out by slow freezing method. The mRNA level of Hsp90 expression in both fresh and cryopreserved mouse ovarian tissue was analyzed by RT-PCR. The protein expression of Hsp90 was evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein of Hsp90 were expressed in both fresh and cryopreserved mouse ovarian tissue. The amount of Hsp90 mRNA was increased in cryopreserved ovarian tissue after 60 and 90 minutes after thawing and incubation. The amount of Hsp90 protein was increased in the cryopreserved ovarian tissue after 6 hours of the incubation in Western blot analysis. In immunohistochemical study, Hsp90 protein was localized in cytoplasm of oocytes and granulosa cells. Significant level of immunoreactive Hsp90 protein was detected in theca cells contrast to the weak expression in ovarian epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: This results showed the increase of Hsp90 expression in both mRNA and protein level in the cryopreserved mouse ovarian tissue. It can be suggested that Hsp90 may play a role in the protective or recovery mechanism against the cell damage during cryopreservaion.