OBJECTIVE: ICSI with testicular sperm could achieve optimal fertilization and pregnancy. This study was performed to observe the influence on fertilization and pregnancy of motility of fresh testicular sperm and sperm extracted from frozen-thawed seminiferous tubules in obstructive azoospermia. MATERIALS ANDMETHODS: We analysed clinical outcome of ICSI using fresh testicular sperm and sperm extracted from thawed seminiferous tubules. The presence of motility were compared to determine the factor for optimal fertilization and pregnancy rates. RESULTS: In 316 cases of TESE-ICSI in obstructive azoospermia, ICSI with fresh testicular sperm (fresh sperm group) were 163 cases and ICSI with sperm testicular sperm extracted from frozen-thawed seminiferous tubule (thawed sperm group) were 153 cases. The fertilization rates were 71.3% and pregnancy rates were 32.5% in fresh sperm group, in thawed sperm group, 65.1% and 33.3% respectively. The fertilization and pregnancy rates of motile and non-motile testicular sperm were 72.9% and 33.6%, 50.0% and 18.2%, respectively (p<0.05). The fertilization and pregnancy rates of motile and non-motile sperm extracted from the thawed seminiferous tubule were 67.8% and 34.7%, 55.1% and 28.1%, respectively (p<0.05). The comparative of the results of ICSI using motile fresh testicular sperm and motile sperm extracted from thawed seminiferous tubule, fertilization and pregnancy rates were not significantly different (72.9% and 33.6%, 67.8% and 34.7%, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that successful pregnancy in TESE-ICSI treatment is influenced by the motility of fresh testicular sperm and sperm extracted from thawed seminiferous tubule in obstructive azoospermic patients.