It was once believed that host cell injury in various infectious diseases is caused solely by pathogens themselves; however, it is now known that host immune reactions to the substances from the infectious agents and/or from the injured host cells by infectious insults are also involved. All biological phenomena in living organisms, including biochemical, physiological and pathological processes, are performed by the proteins that have various sizes and shapes, which in turn are controlled by an interacting network within the living organisms. The author proposes that this network is controlled by the protein homeostasis system (PHS), and that the immune system is one part of the PHS of the host. Each immune cell in the host may recognize and respond to substances, including pathogenic proteins (PPs) that are toxic to target cells of the host, in ways that depend on the size and property of the PPs. Every infectious disease has its own set of toxic substances, including PPs, associated with disease onset, and the PPs and the corresponding immune cells may be responsible for the inflammatory processes that develop in those infectious diseases.