BACKGROUND: Recently, many Korean people travel abroad where malaria is prevalent. However, in Korea, relatively little is known about compliance of chemoprophylaxis against malaria. This study was performed to determine the factors influencing compliance of chemoprophylaxis against malaria in Korean travelers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Face to face interview, telephone interview and e-mail correspondence were performed to 241 people who were prescribed with atovaquone-proguanil at the international travelers' clinic of National Medical Center between February 2007 and October 2007. RESULTS: Total of 55 people out of 235 reported one or more events of adverse reactions after chemoprophylaxis (total 76 events). However, in 38 adverse events the link between chemoprophylaxis and adverse events were very weak. Compliance of malaria chemoprophylaxis with atovaquone-proguanil was 53.9% in the study group. The predictive factors for non-compliance were package tour, travel of business affair and young age group. Conclusions: Compliance of malaria chemoprophylaxis in Korea travelers was low compared with Dutch and French studies. More efforts to increase compliance are needed, especially in travelers on package tour, business travel and people under age 40.