Cytokines are hormone-like proteins which mediate and regulate inflammatory and immune responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), and Mycoplasma lysates on regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by human nasal fibroblasts. Primary cultured cells were incubated with LPS (1.0 ug/ml) from E.coli, SEB (1.0 ug/ml) from S.aureus, or Mycoplasma lysates (M.pneumoniae, Mp; M. fermentans, Mf; M. hominis, Mh, each 1.0 ug/ml). The culture supernatants were collected at 2, 6, and 24 hr and assessed for IL-6 and IL-8 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The production of IL-6 in the culture supematant was downregulated by LPS, SEB, or Mycoplasma lysates. But IL-6 was upregulated by mixed exposure with Mp+LPS (2 hr), Mp+LPS+SEB (24 hr), Mf+LPS (24 hr), Mf+LPS+SEB (2 hr), Mh+LPS (24 hr), Mh+SEB (24 hr), or Mh+LPS+ SEB (24 hr). The production of IL-8 in the culture supematant was similar to that of IL-6 by same stimulants. But IL-8 was upregulated by mixed exposure with Mf+LPS+SEB (2 hr), Mh+LPS (24 hr), Mh+ SEB (24 hr), or Mh+LPS+SEB (24 hr). These studies show that costimulation of LPS or SEB with Mycoplasma whole cell lysates upregulates the production of IL-6 and IL-8.