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Epidemiol Health. 2018;40(1):e2018047. English. Original Article.
Labana RV , Dungca JZ , Nissapatorn V .
Department of Biology, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines College of Science, Manila, Philippines.
Graduate School, Centro Escolar University, Manila, Philippines.
School of Science and Technology, Centro Escolar University, Manila, Philippines.
School of Allied Health Sciences (Southeast Asia Water Team), Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.
Research Excellence Center for Innovation and Health Products (RECIHP), Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.


For the first time, Boliwong, an indigenous community in the Philippines, was surveyed for the prevalence of Cryptosporidium from April to December 2017.


Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples from the river, creek, and water pumps via immunomagnetic separation techniques, and from human and animal concentrated faecal samples using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique.


Seven of the 24 water samples (29.2%) were positive for Cryptosporidium, with the highest concentration (0.8 oocyst/L) detected in the creek. Of 35 fecal samples from different animal groups, 8 (21.6%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The highest intensity of oocyst shedding was detected in dogs (χ²=8.00). Of the 137 human fecal samples, 39 (28.5%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. In this study, 3 risk factors were found to be associated with infection: (1) location (crude odds ratio [cOR], 16.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11 to 127.41; p=0.008), (2) drinking water from the natural spring (cOR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.82; p < 0.05), and (3) using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility (cOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.20; p < 0.05). When the cOR was adjusted, using an open pit as a sanitary toilet facility remained a significant risk factor of infection (adjusted OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.90; p<0.05).


There is a potentially emerging Cryptosporidium zoonosis in Boliwong, Lagawe, Philippines. It is recommended that the toilet facilities and the water system in the community be rehabilitated to avoid any possible disease outbreak. Health education is also needed in the community to maintain proper hygiene and sanitation practices.

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