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Epidemiol Health. 2018;40(1):e2018032. English. Original Article.
Ayubi E , Barati M , Dabbagh Moghaddam A , Khoshdel AR .
Modern Epidemiology Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Infectious Diseases Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Deputy of Health, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


This study aimed to map the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Iranian army units (IAUs) and to identify possible spatial clusters.


This ecological study investigated incident cases of CL between 2014 and 2017. CL data were extracted from the CL registry maintained by the deputy of health of AJA University of Medical Sciences. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of CL was computed with a Besag, York, and Mollié model. The purely spatial scan statistic was employed to detect the most likely high- and low-rate clusters and to obtain the observed-to-expected (O/E) ratio for each detected cluster. The statistical significance of the clusters was assessed using the log likelihood ratio (LLR) test and Monte Carlo hypothesis testing.


A total of 1,144 new CL cases occurred in IAUs from 2014 to 2017, with an incidence rate of 260 per 100,000. Isfahan and Khuzestan Provinces were found to have more CL cases than expected in all studied years (SIR>1), while Kermanshah, Kerman, and Fars Provinces were observed to have been high-risk areas in only some years of the study period. The most significant CL cluster was in Kermanshah Province (O/E, 67.88; LLR, 1,200.62; p < 0.001), followed by clusters in Isfahan Province (O/E, 6.02; LLR, 513.24; p < 0.001) and Khuzestan Province (O/E, 2.35; LLR, 73.71; p < 0.001), while low-rate clusters were located in the northeast areas, including Razavi Khorasan, North Khorasan, Semnan, and Golestan Provinces (O/E, 0.03; LLR, 95.11; p < 0.001).


This study identified high-risk areas for CL. These findings have public health implications and should be considered when planning control interventions among IAUs.

Copyright © 2019. Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors.