BACKGROUND: Many infections are associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, persistence, clinical significance, and characteristics of aPLs in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. METHODS: This study included 143 patients with HBV infection and 32 healthy individuals as controls. The presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL Ab), anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (beta2GPI Ab), and lupus anticoagulant (LA) was assessed. RESULTS: The total prevalence of aPLs in HBV-infected patients was 12.6% (18 of 143). Of these 18 patients, 15 had low to medium titers of aCL Ab (10 with IgM, 4 with IgG, and 1 with both isotypes). beta2GPI Ab and LA were detected in 3 (2.1%) and 2 (1.4%) patients with HBV infection, respectively. In follow-up specimens from 14 patients with elevated levels of aCL Ab or beta2GPI Ab, 10 (71.4%) showed the persistent presence of aPLs. No clinical manifestations related to aPLs were identified. CONCLUSION: In HBV-infected patients, the most frequently detected antiphospholipid antibodies were IgM aCL Ab, which have a weak association with the clinical manifestations of APS. Unlike the transient presence reported for other infection-associated aPLs, most aPLs were persistently detected over a 12-week period in patients with HBV infection.