Cemento-ossifying fibromas are benign tumors, and, although cases of an aggressive type have been reported, no cases of cemento-ossifying fibroma transforming into osteosarcoma have been documented previously. Low-grade osteosarcoma is a rare type of primary bone tumor, representing 1%-2% of all osteosarcomas. A 45-year-old female patient was diagnosed with cemento-ossifying fibroma, treated with mass excision several times over a period of two years and eight months, and followed up. After biopsy gathered because of signs of recurrence, she was diagnosed with low-grade osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide excision, segmental mandibulectomy, and reconstruction with fibula free flap. The aim of this report is to raise awareness of the possibility that cemento-ossifying fibroma can transform into osteosarcoma and of the consequent necessity for careful diagnosis and treatment planning.