INTRODUCTION: This study was to assess the effectiveness of new bone formation and regeneration by using a rhBMP-2 and beta-TCP as a carrier in rabbits' mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mandibles of 36 rabbits were exposed and cortical bone was penetrated for this study. The experimental subjects were divided into 3 groups each 12 rabbits; control group, experimental group 1, and experimental group 2. Control group had the defect itself without any treatment, in the experimental group 1, beta-TCP only was grafted, and in the experimental group 2, rhBMP-2 soaked in beta-TCP was grafted. The rabbits were sacrificed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8weeks, and new bone formation area was examined and measured for bone quantitative and qualitative analysis with light, fluorescent and polarized microscopy. RESULTS: In the experimental group 1, new bone formation from the adjacent host bone was made by osteoconduction, and in the experimental group 2, direct new bone formation by osteoinduction of rhBMP-2 as well as new bone formation by osteoconduction of beta-TCP were observed. CONCLUSION: rhBMP-2 of experimental group 2 is very effective in the bone formation in early 2weeks and bone remodelling from 3weeks.