Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of bone and soft tissue. This aggressive form of chondrosarcoma represents only 3% to 9% of all chondrosarcomas. This neoplasm is characterized by sheets or clusters of undifferentiated spindle or round cells surrounding discrete nodules of well-differentiated cartilage. We experienced a case of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma on mandibular body. Two years ago, the patient had been treated the intrabony cystic lesion on mandiblular left body. At that time, cartilage portion was not detected in the cystic specimen. Two years after cyst enucleation, the recurred large neoplasm in the mandibular left body was noted, and it was diagnosed as 4.5 cm sized mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. The mandibular tumor was widely resected and rigid-plate and cervical musculocutaneous flap were used for reconstruction of resected bone and soft tissues. No complications and recurrence were noted for 6 months postoperatively.