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J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008 Jun;34(3):250-265. Korean. Original Article.
Jee YJ , Kim YG .
Division of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Hospital, East-West Neo Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Professional Graduate School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established clinical treatment for limb length discrepancy and skeletal deformities. Appropriate mechanical tension-stress is believed not to break the callus but rather to stimulate osteogenesis. In contrast to fracture healing, the mode of bone formation in distraction osteogenesis is primarily intramembranous ossification. Although the biomechanical, histological, and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been widely described, the basic biology of the process is still not well known. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms in distraction osteogenesis remain largely unclear. Recent studies have implicated the growth factor cascade is likely to play an important role in distraction. And current reserch suggested that mechanical tension-stress modulates cell shape and phenotype, and stimulates the expression of the mRNA for bone matrix proteins. The purpose of this study is to examine the pattern of expression of growth factors(TGF-beta1, IGF-I, bFGF) and extracellular matrix proteins(osteoclacin, osteonectin) related to osteogenesis by osteodistraction of the mandible in rabbits. 24 rabbits is used for this experiment. Experimental group are gradual distraction(0.7mm, twice/day), acute distraction(1.4mm, twice/day) and control group is only osteotomized. After 5 days latency, osteotomic site is distracted for each 7 days and 3.5 days. Consolidation period is 28 days. The animal is sacrificed at the 3th, 7th, 14th, 28th. The distracted bone is examined by immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR analysis. The results obtained from this study were as follow : No significant difference was found on clinical examination according to distraction rate, but gradual distraction was shown to improve regenerate bone formation on radiographic and histologic examination. Growth factors and extracelluar matrix proteins expression increased in distraction group than control group. From these results, it could be stated that graudal distraction is shown to improve and accelerate bone formation and mechanical stress like distraction has considerable effects on osteogenesis related factors. And rabbit is the most appropriate animal model for further reseach on the molecular mechanisms that mediate osteodistraction. It is believed that understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone healing.

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