r cells, and the efficacy of drug delivery can be high in richly vascularized tumors. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on microvessel density from 11 patients with tongue cancers. Our results showed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy was seemed to decrease VEGF expression in tumor cells, however, it did not significantly alter VEGF expression in tumor-associated macrophages. Also, Neoadjuvant chemotherapy had little effect on the microvessel density using CD34, and tumor-associated macrophage level using CD68. Thus, tumorassociated macrophages seem to be the key factor associated with the maintenance of microvessel density after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in tongue cancer.