OBJECTIVES: To develop a bioactive membrane for guided bone regeneration (GBR), the biocompatibility and bone regenerating capacity of the cellulose membrane obtained from the Ascidians squirt skin were evaluated. MATARIALS AND METHODS: After processing the pure cellulose membrane from the squirt skin, the morphological study, amino acid analysis and the immunoreactivity of the cellulose membrane were tested. Total eighteen male Spraque-Dawley rats (12 weeks, weighing 250 to 300g) were divided into two control (n=8) and another two experimental groups (n=10). In the first experimental group (n=5), the cellulose membrane was applicated to the 8.0 mm sized calvarial bone defect and the same sized defect was left without cellulose membrane in the first control group (n=4). In the another experimental group (n=5), the cellulose membrane was applicated to the same sized calvarial bone defect after femoral bone graft and the same sized defect with bone graft was left without cellulose membrane in the another control group (n=4). Each group was sacrificed after 6 weeks, the histological study with HandE and Masson trichrome stain was done, and immunohistochemical stainings of angiogenin and VEGF were also carried out. RESULTS: The squirt skin cellulose showed the bio-inductive effect on the bone and mesenchymal tissues in the periosteum of rat calvarial bone. This phenomenon was found only in the inner surface of the cellulose membrane after 6 weeks contrast to the outer surface. Bone defect covered with the bioactive cellulose membrane showed significantly greater bone formation compared with control groups. Mesenchymal cells beneath the inner surface of the bioactive cellulose membrane were positive to the angiogenin and VEGF antibodies. CONCLUSION: We suppose that there still remains extremely little amount of peptide fragment derived from the basement membrane matrix proteins of squirt skin, which is a kind of anchoring protein composed of glycocalyx. This composition could prevent the adverse immunological hypersensitivity and also induce bioactive properties of cellulose membrane. These properties induced the effective angiogenesis with rapid osteogenesis beneath the inner surface of cellulose membrane, and so the possibilities of clinical application in dental field as a GBR material will be able to be suggested.