This study was to analyze the changes of levels of alkaline phosphatase before and after enucleation of jaw cysts combined with bone grafting, and to evaluate biochemically the effectiveness of the early detection of bone healing and infection as a prognostic marker. Eighteen patients (13 males, 5 females) with cystic lesions of the jaws were divided into two groups. The bone graft group underwent enucleation and bone graft. The control group underwent only enucleation. Both groups were measured levels of ALP before surgery, and plus-minus 4 weeks postoperatively. The more discriminating results were obtained in the bone graft group. The results were as follows : 1. Levels of ALP after enucleation of jaw cysts were decreased in all patients with and without bone graft. 2. The bone graft group showed more marked decrease in variation of levels of ALP than the control group.(p=0.008) This should be considered as a result of increased osteoblastic activity and new bone formation. 3. Such variation could be used as a prognostic marker for bone healing after cyst operation. In the cost/benefit ratio, measurement of ALP activity could be useful as a convenient procedure in routine clinical practice.