This study demonstrated that xenogenic human marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) could elicit the regeneration of the sensory nerve after axotomy in the adult rats'infraorbital nerves without immunosuppression. For this, we evaluated the behavioral testing for functional recovery of the nerve and histological findings at weeks 3 and 5 compared to controls. Xenogenic hMSCs did not evoke any significant inflammatory or immunologic reaction after systemic and local administrations. HMSCs-treated rats exhibited significant improvement on sensory recovery tested with von Frey monofilaments. At 5 postoperative weeks, in the hMSCs treated nerve, expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament (NF) at the site of axotomy was higher than control. And mRNA expression of neurotropin receptor Trk precursor (TrkPre), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) and neuropeptide (NPY) in trigeminal ganglion were also higher. The number of myelinated nerve at distal stump and cells in trigeminal ganglion were higher in hMSC treated rats. So it was supposed that transplanted MSCs contributed to reducing post-traumatic degeneration and production of neurotrophic factors. Immunofluorescence labeling showed small portion of hMSCs(<10%) expressed a phenotypic marker of Schwann cell (S-100). Xenogenic or allogenic mesenchymal stem cells might have immune privileged characteristics and useful tool for cell based nerve repair.