The present study was undertaken to evaluate bone regenerative capacity around titanium screw implants placed in irradiated rat's tibiae. At one week after single 15-Gy dose irradiation, miniaturized titanium screw implants were inserted into anterior aspect of the upper tibia of rats weighing 200-250g. Seventy rats were involved: 35 rats were control and 35 rats radiation group. The rats were killed at different intervals as 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks after implantation for histologic observation, histomorphometric analysis and immunohistochemical study with fibronectin and CD34 antibody. 1. Histologically, various stages of bone maturation and ossification can be seen at 4 weeks and regenerated bone close to edges demonstrates more advanced calcification, and network of new bone are well formed at 12 weeks in non-irradiated group. In contrast, active bone formation with increased contact of newly formed bone to implant surface was noted at 4 weeks and a significant amount of new bone formation and bone-implant contact is oberved at 12 weeks in irradiated group. 2. Histomorphometrical analysis confirmed these histologic findings. A significant difference in implant-bone contact and bone density was measured between the control and radiation group. Mean MBD was 62.2% in control group and 27.5% in radiation group, mean MBIC was 86.6% in control group and 47.7% in radiation group, and mean TBIC was 87.3% in control group and 45.6% in radiation group at 12 weeks after implantation. 3. In immunohistochemical study with fibronectin and CD34, radiation reduced hematopoietic progenitor cells severely and disturbed differentiation of osteoblast in bone marrow. The results of this study revealed bone healing capacity around implant after radiation therapy was severely impaired and irradiation reduces the capacity for osseointegration of titanium implants. Many factors including radiation dose, period between radiation and implantation, bone quality, time elapse between first and second surgery, type of prosthetics and hyperbaric oxygen therapy must be considered carefully in postradiation implantation.