The p53 protein was discovered in 1979 as cellular 53-kD nuclear phosphoprotein bound to the large transforming antigen of SV40 virus. P21WAF1/CIP1, which has been described as the critical downstream mediator of p53, is known to suppress DNA replication and arrest the G1 cell cycle by quaternary complex with cyclin D, cyclin-dependent kinase(CDK) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA). In these days, some studies shows that the p21 can be induced by independent pathways. There are various reports about the expression of p21 (67%.82.4%) in oral squamous cell carcinoma. But these studies are mostly done in malignant tumor not in benign tumor. So we decided to study the expression of p21 in ameloblastoma and the relationship between p53 and p21 as a downstream mediator of p53 in ameloblastoma. We investigated the expression of p21 and p53 with the method of immunohistochemistry. We selected 30 cases of ameloblastoma tissue blocks (acanthomatous type: 5 cases, follicular type: 8 cases, plexiform type: 17 cases) imbedded in paraffin. We used 30 cases of normal gingival tissues and 30 cases of squamous cell carcinoma tissues (SCC) respectively and compared their results with those of ameloblastoma. We made slides with the streptavidin-biotin methods and used monoclonal antibody DO-7 (Novocastra, Newcastle, United Kingdom) as p53 antibody and monoclonal antibody M7202 (DAKO, California, U.S.A.) as p21 antibody. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient to analyse the relationship. The results were as follows: 1. p21 was expressed in ameloblastoma about 30% and this is lower than that of normal gingiva and SCC. 2. In normal gingiva and ameloblastoma, p21 expression was correlated with p53 expression. 3. In SCC, p21 were expressed about 83.3% and this is more than that of p53. But there was no correlation between p21 and p53 expression. We confirmed p21 expression and relation with p53 in ameloblastoma. But, to confirm the function of p21, more studies about p21 expression in malignant ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma are needed.