The purpose of this study is to evaluate the critical maintenance period of absorbable membrane for guided bone regeneration. Fortynine Sprague-Dawley rats weighing about 300g were divided into seven groups. An 8 mm circular full-thickness defect in calvarial bone was made and then cellular acetate porous filter (Millipore filter(R)) was placed on the calvarial bone defect. The filter was removed at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 11 weeks after placement. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks the placement of cellular acetate porous filter. The specimens were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and observed under light microscope. The amount of regenerated bone was measured from both margin of calvarial bone defect (unit : mm). The results were as follows. Bone regeneration of each experimental group was increased gradually and the bond defect was almost completely filled with new bone in 5-, 6-, 8-, and 11-week experimental group. Histologic findings showed mild inflammatory response and granulation tissue formation without apparent adverse effects on the healing process. In 11-week experimental group, the bone defect was completely filled with new bone containing abundant osteoid which was oriented to the dural side and contribute to bony thickening. We suggest that non-absorbable membrane and bioabsorbable membrane presumably should remain intact for longer than 5 weeks to be effective.