This study was designed to evaluate the influence of fibroblasts or connective tissue from mouse oral mucosa on differentiation of neonatal mouse calvaria-derived osteoblasts and mineralization of bone nodules. Primary cell cultures from mouse calvarial osteoblasts and 2-4 passaged fibroblasts from oral mucosa were co-cultured in monolayer cultures, devided into 6 experimental group according to cell density or cell confluency. Osteoblasts were also co-cultured with fibroblasts in Transwell(R) culture plate with different co-cultured period according to osteoblast differentiation. The alkaline phosphatase activity were measured in monolayer cultures and cultures using Transwell(R). The mineralized bone nodules were presented by Von Kossa staining and density of mineralized nodules was measured by image analysis. The connective tissues with or without osteoblast seeding were cultured and examined histologically by Von Kossa and Trichrome Goldner staining. The results were as follows; 1. Prolonged maturation of matrix and delayed mineralization of bone nodules were resulted in monolayer cultures. 2. Co-culture of fibroblast with osteoblast using Transwell(R) during osteoblast proliferation stage stimulated proliferation of osteoblasts and increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of bone nodules. 3. Co-culture of fibroblast with osteoblast using Transwell(R) during matrix mineralization stage decreased and delayed mineralization of bone nodules. 4. In vitro cultured connective tissue with osteoblast seeding resulted in proliferation of osteoblasts and matrix formation with mineralization.