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J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000 Dec;26(6):644-651. Korean. Original Article.
Kim MJ , Kim TY , Hwang KG , Yu SJ , Myoung H , Kim SK , Kim JW , Kim KS .
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University.

In cases of severe alveolar bony resorption in the edentulous posterior maxillae, implant placement is limited anatomically due to maxillary sinus. If the ridge is atrophic, the various bone grafting methods are required for the ridge augmentation. But the result of the onlay grafting procedure is not always promising. On the posterior maxilla, maxillary sinus mucosa lifting and bone grafting into the sinus floor, subantral augmentation(SA) technique are recommended. Various SA procedures have been developed for implant installation. We perfer to simultaneous block bone graft and implant installation through the residual alveolar ridge into the grafted block bone to fix the grafted bone and to gain the primary stability of the installed fixture. When a sagittal skeletal discrepancy in present due to the severe alveolar bony resorption of the maxilla, the advancement of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy simultaneously with installation of implant fixtures combined with sinus lifting and interpositional bone graft procedure can be indicated. We applied various SA techniques for implant installtion to the 46 edentulous posterior maxillae, and total 154 implants were installed at our department from 1992 to 1999. Various SA techniques were classified in detail and the indications of each techniques were discussed. The changes of residual bony height following SA procedure were studied. The results were as follows. 1. The SA procedure combined with bone graft and simultaneous fixture installation were performed in 41 cases, 126 fixtures were installed and 5 fixtures were removed out of them. Le Fort I osteotomy procedure combined with sinus lifting and interpositional bone graft simultaneous with fixture installation were performed in 5 cases. Total 28 fixtures were installed and 2 fixtures were removed so far. 2. Autogenous block bone graft into sinus floor were performed in 35 cases, autogenous particulated marrow cancellous bone(PMCB) graft in 9 cases, and demineralized human bone powder in 2 cases. The donor site for bone graft were anterior iliac bone in 39 cases, posterior iliac bone in 3 cases and mandibular symphysis in 1 case and mandibular ramus in 1 case. 3. In 9 cases with which SA procedure had been performed with the block bone graft, the change of pre fand postoperative residual bony height were measured using MPR(multiplanar reformatted)-CT. The mean residual bony height was 8.0mm preoperatively, 20.2mm at 6 months following up operation and we gained average 12.2mm alveolar bony height. So, we can recommend this one-stage subantral augmentation and fixture installation technique as a time conserving, safe and useful method for compromised posterior edentulous maxilla.

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