The bone graft materials can be grossly divided into autogenous bone, allogenic bone, xenogenic bone, and alloplastic material. Much care was given to other bone graft materials away from autogenous bone due to its additional operation for harvesting, delayed resorption and limitation of quantity. Demineralized freeze-dried bone(DFDB) and hydroxyapatite are the representatives of bone graft materials. As resorbable hydroxyapatite is developed in these days, the disadvantage of nonresorbability can be overcome. So we planned to study on the strength and the bone formation at the rats calvarial defects of DFDB graft and those of the composite graft with DFDB and resorbable hydroxyapatite. We used the 16 male rats weighting range from 250 to 300 gram bred under the same environment during same period. After we made the 6mm diameter calvarial defect, we filled the DFDB in 8 rats and DFDB and resorbable hydroxyapatite in another 8 rats. We sacrificed them at the postoperative 1 month and 2 months with the periostium observed. As soon as the specimens were delivered, we measured the compressive forces to break the normal calvarial area and the newly formed bone in calvarial defect area using Instron (Model Autograph S-2000, Shimadzu, Japan). The rest of the specimens were stained with H&E(Hematoxylin & Eosin) and evaluated with the light microscope. So we got the following results. 1. In every rats, there was no significant difference between the measured forces of normal bone area and those of the bone graft area. 2. In 1 month, the measured forces at DFDB graft group were higher than those of the DFDB and resorbable hydroxyapatite composite graft group(P<0.05). 3. In 2 months, there was no significant differences between the measured forces of DFDB graft group and those of the DFDB and resorbable hydroxyapatite composite graft group. 4. In lightmicroscopic examination, most of the grafted DFDB were transformed into bone in 1 month and a large numbers of hydroxyapatite crystal were observed in DFDB and resorbable hydroxyapatite composite graft group in 1 month. 5. Both group showed no inflammatory reaction in 1 month. And hydroxyapatite crystals had a tight junction without soft tissue invagination when consolidated with newly formed bone. 6. In both groups, newly formed bone showed the partial bone remodeling and the lamellar bone structures and some of reversal lines were observed in 2 months. From the above results, it is suggested that DFDB and resorbable hydroxyapatite composite graft group had a better resistance to compressive force in early stage than DFDB graft group, but there would be no significant difference between two groups after some period. And it is suggested that the early stage of bone formation procedure of DFDB and resorbable hydroxyapatite composite graft group was slight slower than that of DFDB graft group, but there would be no significant difference between two groups after some period.