This study was conducted to compare the vein graft with the nerve graft, and evaluated the availability of the vein graft on the reconstruction of the inferior alveolar nerve defect. The experimental animals were 12 rabbits weighing 1.5~2.0kg, divided into 3 groups : sham operation group, vein conduit group and nerve graft group. All nerves were excised and histomorphometric analysis was performed at 2, 4, 6, 12, 16 weeks after operation. The obtained results were as follows. 1. Histologic examination revealed the regenerated nerve fibers within the lumen of the vein graft and nerve graft at 6 weeks after repair. 2. Axon diameter was significantly larger in nerve graft group(p<0.05) than in vein graft group at 6weeks, and larger in nerve graft group than in vein graft group at 16weeks. 3. Axon density was higher in the vein graft group at 16 weeks. 4. The myelin of the regenerated nerve fibers in distal segment of the vein graft group was thick, approaching the proximal segment at 16weeks. This means remyelination in distal segment in the vein graft group. These results suggested that autogenous vein graft may be used as an alternative to autogenous nerve graft.