BACKGROUND: This study was focused on the influence of chronic aircraft noise exposure on children's emotional and behavioral characteristics in Korean children. METHODS: We enrolled 586 4th~6th grade children of seven primary schools near airbases in Korea. The Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist, Korean Personality Inventory for Children, Kovac's Children's Depression Inventory, and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory involving 2 schools in a helicopter noise-impacted urban area and 3 schools in a fighter plane noise-impacted urban area were compared with those of children from 2 matched control schools in low-aircraft noise-impacted urban areas in Korea. RESULTS: Family discomfort and autistic symptoms of Korean personality inventory for children were significantly higher among children in schools in a helicopter and a fighter plane noise environment compared to the low noised schools. Also, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory was significantly higher among children in schools in a helicopter and a fighter plane noise environment compared to the low noise schools. CONCLUSION: Children in a chronic aircraft noise environment schools was shown to be associated with a higher rate of autistic behavior and family discomfort. Also there was a possibility for chronic aircraft noise exposure to be associated with family environment function other than depression and anxiety.