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J Prev Med Public Health. 2017 Nov;50(6):369-376. English. Original Article.
Jeon DH , Yeom H , Yang J , Song JS , Lee HK , Kim HC .
Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Public Health, Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Institute of Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Dry eye disease (DED) is an increasingly important public health problem in Korea. Previous studies conducted in Korea have reported inconsistent results regarding the protective effects of vitamin D on DED, and these discrepancies may be related to the relatively simple questionnaire that has been used. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum vitamin D levels with DED using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI).


The present study evaluated data from participants in the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease (2014-2015). This group included data from 752 participants, and data from 740 participants (253 men and 487 women) were analyzed in the present study. DED severity was evaluated using the OSDI.


Higher serum vitamin D levels were associated with a non-significantly reduced risk of DED in the crude analysis (odds ratio [OR], 0.991; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.971 to 1.011) and in the adjusted analysis (OR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.966 to 1.010). In the crude analysis of no/mild DED vs. moderate/severe DED, men exhibited a decreased risk with increasing serum vitamin D levels (OR, 0.999; 95% CI, 0.950 to 1.051), while women exhibited an increased risk (OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 0.979 to 1.027). In these analyses, we found no significant associations.


The findings of the present study support previous reports that serum vitamin D levels are not associated with DED.

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