Patients with heart failure (HF) have structural and functional changes of the gut as a result of microcirculatory disturbances. A disrupted gut epithelial barrier may lead to translocation of microbial products into systemic circulation, possibly aggravating HF by inducing inflammatory responses. Gut microbiota play an essential role in the maintenance of host homeostasis because large quantities of their gene products complement host physiological processes. Emerging evidence has suggested the potential clinical significance of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of HF. Imbalances of gut microbe-derived metabolites can contribute to cardiac dysfunction and other morbidities in patients with HF. Therapeutic research for HF through targeting microbiota is under way. Thus, the novel concept of a heart-gut axis may lead to breakthroughs in the development of innovative diagnostics and therapeutic approaches for HF.